All participants age above 18 years old were eligible. It was a survey in a general population with a publicized announcement and consecutive convenience sample participated to respond to the questionnaires according to their interest. These included both healthcare workers (HCW) and non-HCW participants. A total number of 833 participants were enrolled determined by the sample size calculation. The study was planned to find out what proportion of adverse skin reactions caused by nose and mouth mask wearing. An estimate of proportion was .35 in the previous study.12 A confidence coefficient of 95% was desired, plus an absolute precision of .05 was used.
Face masks are worn by all operating room personnel when treating patients prone to infections like neurosurgery, vascular, and orthopedic procedures involving implants and regional anesthesia procedures (e.g. , spinal or epidural). Face Mask may also be employed to protect staff from contamination. All personnel wear face masks when taking care of trauma patients or patients with blood-borne infections.
Recent studies declare that wearing face masks cuts down on spread of COVID-19 on the population level and consequently blunts the expansion from the epidemic curve (7, 8). Still, determining mask efficacy can be a complex topic that is still a dynamic field of research [see, by way of example, (9)], made even more complicated because the infection pathways for COVID-19 usually are not yet fully understood and therefore are complicated by many factors such as the route of transmission, correct fit and using masks, and environmental variables. From a public policy perspective, shortages in supply for surgical markers and N95 respirators, and also concerns relating to side effects and also the discomfort of prolonged use (10), have led to public utilization of a variety of solutions which are generally less restrictive (for example homemade cotton masks or bandanas) in fact of unknown efficacy. While some textiles employed for mask fabrication are actually characterized (11), the performance of actual masks inside a practical setting must be considered. The work we report here describes a measurement method which can be used to further improve evaluation to guide mask selection and buy decisions.